کتاب Assessing Interactional Competence through Paired divergent and convergent speaking tasks

تومان17,000

anguage proficiency was first understood as the knowledge of structure (grammatical, lexical, and phonological) that, it was believed, the best be measured by discrete-point tests (Lado, 1961). With the rise of communicative language teaching in the 1970s, performance testing received significance. In 1980s, the language proficiency interview (e.g. the ACTFL oral proficiency interview, or OPI), that was a specific type of performance test, became common. However, there was a large impact of asymmetry of power in examinee-examiner interviews

توضیحات

LIST

Title                                                                                                              page

Acknowledgements 6

Chapter 1. 13

INTRODUCTION.. 13

1.1 Preliminaries 13

1.2 Statement of the problem.. 15

1.3 Significance of the study. 16

1.4 Objectives of the study. 17

1.5 Research questions 18

1.6 Definition of key terms 18

Chapter 2. 20

Literature Review.. 20

2.1 Overview.. 20

2.2 Communicative competence. 22

2.2.1 Hymes (1972a) 23

2.2.2 Canale and Swain (1980) 24

2.2.3 Bachman (1990) 25

2.2.4 Bachman and Palmer (1996) 26

2.3 Interactional competence. 29

2.3.1 Discursive practices 30

2.3.2 Resources of discursive practices 31

2.3.3 Context of discursive practices 31

2.3.4 Intersubjectivity in discursive practices 32

2.4 Interactional competence in paired and group speaking tests 34

2.4.1 Matuality & equality. 36

2.4.2 Interaction features 38

2.4.3 Conversation analyses 42

2.4.4 Discourse analyses 43

2.4.5 Rater perceptions 46

2.5 Task and interlocutor impacts in paired and group speaking tests 51

2.5.1 Task effects 54

2.5.2 Effects of proficiency and language ability. 56

2.5.3 The interlocutor effect revisited: Language ability identities 60

2.6 Insights into interactional competence from theoretical and empirical research  63

2.6.1 The debate over authenticity. 64

2.6.2 The debate over variability. 68

2.7 Chapter summary. 72

Chapter 3. 75

Method. 75

3.1 Overview.. 75

3.2 Participants 75

3.3 Procedure. 76

3.3.1 Theoretical model of interactional competence. 78

3.4 Materials 81

3.5 Data analysis 82

Chapter 4. 83

Data Analysis and Results 83

4.1 Overview.. 83

4.2 Discussing spoken interaction model 83

4.3 Investigating the first research question. 84

4.4 Investigating the second research question. 92

4.5  Investigating the third research question. 98

Chapter 5. 101

Discussions, Conclusions, and Implications 101

5.1 Overview.. 101

5.2 Restatement of the problem.. 101

5.3 Major findings 102

5.3.1 Features of the free discussion task. 102

5.3.2 Features of the story completion task. 105

5.3.3 The Task type effects on interaction performance. 108

5.4 Conclusion. 110

5.5 Implications of the study. 112

5.6 Limitations of the study. 113

5.7 Suggestions for future research. 113

Refernces. 115

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